This is just promotional activities, which gives you no direct benefit in ranking. But if you do it on regular basis, then it will increase your website traffic and which of course gives some indirect benefit to website ranking.
Article is a form of content which is based on general perception or some research work, so it can be promoted with some website references. Promoting an article by posting it on some high quality Article sites, you can be able to make backlink of your referral site and increase traffic as well.
Article should be more than 1000 words, so that a user would be able to know all the details.
If you want to give some details about your main website, or you have something to discuss with your user. So you can create your own blog, and by which you can also increase your website traffic. There are many platforms available by which you can create a free blog like – WordPress, Weebly, Wix, Blogger, etc.
Guest Posting / Blog Submission
It is a kind of blog submission, which you perform on some other blogs, other than you. If you submit you blog content to some other high quality blogging site and if it gets published, then it will give you much more benefit than posting on your own blog. A blog content is normally between 500-1000 words.
It is also a form of creating backlinks, in which you just comment on some good quality blogging sites, and if it gets approved then it will also counted as backlink. But that will depend on website author to give a link as no follow or follow.
Social Bookmarking (SBM)
It is a kind of bookmarking in which your Website or WebPages gets saved online on some high quality bookmarking site. It is same like you just bookmark a webpage on your web browser.
The best thing to save your website on these site is that, these type of sites are crawled first before all website and these website gives your website a Do follow value.
Forums is a kind of Q/A sites, where you can start a thread / discussion or you can post a reply to any discussion. Forums gives you a facility of signature, many high quality forum sites provide the facility of signature where you can attach your website link with your post.
Some sites gives you this facility at the start or some gives you after posting some discussions. This is one of the most important activity for creating backlinks.
Infographics is a kind of graphics where you exhibit flow of information according to your requirement. There are many websites which exclusively provide this facility of publishing Infographics. These website also give No follow values to publishing website who wants to publish their Infographics.
Business Listing (Local Citation or Profile Creation)
These are kind of activities where you list your Business or company profile to business listing sites. Here you can also list your company address via Google map to these sites, so user can also find your address from here.
Web Submission means to submit your site to Search Engines and Directories, this facility provide you the way so that you can ping or submit your site to many Search Engines and Directories from just one site.
Press Release is a kind of News or Event broadcasting in which you just mention your upcoming events or any news related to your Company / Business by putting your website links in it. There are many website, where you can avail this facility at free of cost. So you can broadcast your business news without paying any penny.
If you have something very important for users, then it may be possible to come on Google News.
Document Sharing (PDF, PPT, Video)
This is also a way of sharing you content and creating backlinks. If you have something to share with your users, then you can share it by creating PDF, PPT and videos and posting it to relevant sites.
Above these are some of most important and common techniques of performing OFF Page activity.